Commercialization of technologies generally takes longer and cost more than estimated up front. The issues are similar in commercializing physical sciences, life sciences, or information technologies. As one moves down the path, from the laboratory (or garage) to products in the marketplace, one moves from idealized systems to messy real-world systems. Chemical processes face the transition from uniform distribution at small scales to mal-distribution at large scales, dynamic process behavior, integrated control systems, safety, and operational reliability. Material fabrication processes involve material compatibility issues, lifetime performance under real life situations, and sensitivity to feed materials. The "scale up" of biotechnology from mouse to human biological systems involves toxicity and efficacy performance that can only be demonstrated in clinical trials. Scale up from 10 users to a million users in computer software involves demands for high reliability under conditions that can be difficult to predict a-priori. Commercialization risks can be mitigated with a holistic multi-generation product planning approach using cross-functional input into the project planning and review.